1947 saw the first of many fights which the world witnessed between Pakistan and India, over Kashmir. Although more than 70% of the population of Kashmir is Muslims, the Raja of Jammu and Kashmir politically found it convenient to join hands with India at the time of partition.

Muslim Kashmiris were too depressed because of this act and rebelled against it. In a fit of desperation, Raja signed the accession treaty with India as Indian troops took over one part of Kashmir. Until this date, the other part of Kashmir belongs to Pakistan.

After the first war of 1947, the valley was divided into two parts. Pakistan had control over a thin strip of land encompassing Western Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan. The rest of Kashmir came under the control of India. But the point was that the UN treaty had made it clear that the state was a disputed territory and neither of the countries could lay claims to it.

This led to indecision and ill feelings between the two nations, a matter still unresolved 64 years later. The second war between India and Pakistan over Kashmir was in 1965 and the third one in 1971.

India has continued its control over Kashmir while Pakistan maintains it over a disputed territory. Democracy and the sorting out a problem through political discussions can lead us to prosperity, while incidents like the 1948, 1965, and the 1971 wars will only hinder the progress of both countries.

More unrest in the region erupted after the 2019 Pulwama attack. According to scholars, India has committed many abuses against Kashmiri civilian population. Since India revoked Article 370, ending Kashmir’s autonomy, there has been a lockdown in Jammu and Kashmir for about more than a year now with complete communications and media blackout.

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